外国人在中国就业发生劳动争议应如何适用法律?(二)
2019/8/5 14:32:10  点击率[24]  评论[0]
【法宝引证码】
    【学科类别】劳动法
    【出处】德威特律师事务所
    【写作时间】2019年
    【中文关键字】外国人就业
    【全文】

      劳动合同内容与劳动法和劳动合同法不一致时如何处理?How to deal with disputes when the contents of the labor contract is not consistent with the labor law and the labor contract law?
     
      · 劳动合同的期限
     
      The duration of the labor contract
     
      根据《外国人在中国就业管理规定》第17条的规定:“用人单位与被聘用的外国人应依法订立劳动合同。劳动合同的期限最长不得超过五年。” 然而,劳动合同法第12条的规定:“劳动合同分为固定期限劳动合同、无固定期限劳动合同和以完成一定工作任务为期限的劳动合同”。外国人在华就业的劳动合同的期限,须遵照《外国人在中国就业管理规定》的规定。
     
      According to article 17 of : “An employer and a foreigner employee shall enter into a labour contract pursuant to the law. The term of the labour contract shall not exceed five years.”However, according to article 12 of < Labor Contract Law of the People's Republic of China >: “ Labor contracts are classified into labor contracts with a fixed period, labor contracts without a fixed period and labor contracts with a period to complete the prescribed work.” The term of labor contracts for foreigners in China must be in accordance with< Administrative Provisions on Employment of Foreigners in China >.
     
      · 工资标准
     
      Wage standard
     
      同时,根据《外国人在中国就业管理规定》第21条的规定:“用人单位支付所聘用外国人的工资不得低于当地最低工资标准。”同时,在劳动法第46条第1款规定:“工资分配应当遵循按劳分配原则,实行同工同酬。”并且,在劳动合同法第18条规定,“劳动合同对劳动报酬和劳动条件等标准约定不明确,引发争议的,用人单位与劳动者可以重新协商。协商不成的,适用集体合同规定; 没有集体合同或者集体合同未规定劳动报酬的,用人单位应当对劳动者实行同工同酬。”
     
      According to article 21 of : “The wages paid by an employer to a foreigner employee shall not be lower than the minimum wage standard at its locality.” What is more, according to article 46 of : “Wages shall be paid in accordance with the principle of ”to each according to his work“ and based on equal pay for equal work.” In addition, according to the article 18 of : “Where a labour contract is unclear on the provisions for labour remuneration and working conditions etc and in the event of a dispute, the employer and the worker may re-negotiate; where the negotiation is unsuccessful, the provisions of the collective contract shall apply; where there is no collective contract or where the collective contract has no provision on labour remuneration, the same remuneration shall be paid for the same job position.”
     
      · 劳动合同的所有内容是遵循意思自治还是适用国家的相关规定?
     
      Are all contents of labor contracts applied to the autonomy of will or relevant provisions of states?
     
      根据《外国人在中国就业管理规定》第22条的规定:“在中国就业的外国人的工作时间、休息、休假、劳动安全卫生以及社会保险按国家有关规定执行。” 但是其他的诸如劳动纪律、违约责任、住房公积金、竞业限制以及单方解除劳动合同的条件等,是否也适用国家的有关规定?
     
      According to article 22 of < Administrative Provisions on Employment of Foreigners in China >: “The working hours, rest and off days, work safety and occupational health and social security for foreigners employed in China shall comply with the relevant provisions of the State.” However, other contents such as labor discipline, liability for breach of contract, housing accumulation fund, competition restrictions and conditions for unilaterally dissolving the labor contract, etc., are they also applied to the relevant provisions of the state?
     
      某些省份认为外国人在华就业与用人单位签订的劳动合同适用意思自治的,典型为上海市劳动局关于印发《关于贯彻<外国人在中国就业管理规定>的若干意见》的通知(沪劳外发[1998]25号)第16条的规定:“用人单位与获准聘雇的外国人之间有关聘雇期限、岗位、报酬、保险、工作时间、解除聘雇关系条件、违约责任等双方的权利义务,通过劳动合同约定。”以及关于实施《上海市劳动合同条例》若干问题的通知(沪劳保关发[2002]13号)第26条规定:“获准在本市行政区域内就业的外籍人员和台湾、香港、澳门人员的劳动权利义务,由用人单位的董事会或者管理机构确定后,在劳动合同中加以约定”,这个地方部门规章,成为上海当地法院裁判解决这类纠纷的主要法律依据。
     
      The labor contract signed by employers and foreigners should be applied to autonomy of the will in some provinces. A typical example is the > issued by the Shanghai Municipal Labor Bureau:“ The duration, position, remuneration, insurance, working hours, conditions for termination and liability for breach for the employment relationship between an employer and its foreign employee as well as other rights and obligations shall be specified in an employment contract.” And according to the article 26th of >: “The labor rights and obligations of foreign workers and Taiwan, Hongkong, Macao workers who are allowed to work in the administrative area of this Municipality are stipulated in the labor contract after determined by the board of directors or management agencies. ” This local regulation has become the main legal basis to resolve such disputes by courts in Shanghai.
     
      对于意思自治处理原则,北京和广东的法院在审判过程中更注重法律的规定。 北京没有出台对外国人就业管理的特殊规定,但是在审判的过程中确立了法律强制;广东高级法院在《适用劳动合同法意见》中提出:“外国人、港澳台地区居民在中国内地就业产生的用工关系应按劳动关系处理。” 这一条可以理解为,外国人在广东可以完全适用《劳动合同法》。
     
      For the principle of autonomy of will, the courts of Beijing and Guangdong pay more attention to the legal provisions in trial. Beijing has no special provisions on the management of employment of foreigners, but affirmed the compulsory stipulation of law during the trial; Guangdong senior court put forward that employment labor relations of Foreigners, Hong Kong and Macao residents in the mainland Chinese should be dealt as the employment relationship in . This article can be understood that the labor contract law can be fully applied to foreigners in Guangdong.
     
      综上所述,由于我国在此方面立法的空白导致各地方对法律出现了不同的理解。适用什么法律来处理劳动争议,或者违约责任、竞业限制、劳动纪律等的内容是否享有“国民待遇”,亟需国家有关机关出台相关规定予以明确。
     
      To sum up, there are different understandings about the law in various places because of the gap of legislation. Which laws are applied to deal with labor disputes? And do foreign employees enjoy “national treatment” relate to liability for breach of contract, competition restriction, labor discipline? This is urgent for the relevant state authorities to introduce relevant regulations to make it clear.

    【作者简介】
    德威特律师事务所

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